Friday, August 3, 2012


    Everything that is done with effort and responsability has rewards. Sometimes the rewards come inmediatly when the job is done very well, but sometimes the rewards take more time to appear. These situations happens often when a organization promotes the employees based on seniority or based on performance, and each of them have different advantages for the organization.

    When the promotion is based on seniority, the person who is being promoted has enough experience for the new role. This fact, benefits the organization because the employee knows the whole environment and he/she would likely perform in a proper way, knowing accurately the warnings and possible emergencies, so the organization is sure that everything is under control.

    When the promotion is based on performance, a motivating environmet is being created, because every employee knows that a very a good performance will be considered. So, the organization benefits by having all the employees working with a lot of effort and energy.

    Another advantage of

Complete Test 1 - Writing

          In this set of materials, the reading passage discusses an approach to explain the development of human personality, and the listening passage challenge this by describing another approach.

          The reading passage describes the conflict approach which is based in the idea that a person is always in a state of conflict in two ways. First, there are internal forces that fight with each other. An example of this is the conflicts everyone has when deciding what to eat. Second, there are external forces that fight against the internal forces. An example is when a child wants to watch television but the parents will not allow it.
          The listening passage challenge the approach provided in the reading passage by describing another good approach considered in the field of psychology. This approach is called the fulfillment approach, and it states that there is only one force. This force, has the purpose of satisfying a necessity. Thanks to this, the person put efforts trying to satisfy this need according to how is the person's life and how is the ideal life.

Wednesday, August 1, 2012

Minitest 2 - Writing

          In this set of materials, the reading passage discusses a research about how people behave in groups, and the listening passage supports this by providing examples.
          The reading passage describes two types of behavior that people acquire when they are in groups. The first one is called "Deindividualization" and it happens when people lose their individuality and do things they never do alone. For example, the vandalism after an sport event. The second type is called "Polarization" and it is when people arrive to decisions more extreme than any individual person in the group would do alone. For example, judges who take extreme penalization in minor crimes.
          The listening passage provides pro social examples of the two types of behavior, because antisocialism is not the only consequence of this. The first one is about "Deindividualization" and it is when people share emotional pain with kindness after a bad moment. The second example is about "Polarization" and it happens when people get together to face someone after have suffered individually for a long time.

Mead's studies about gender behavior

          In this set of materials, the reading passage cites some studies in specific societies which lead to a conclusion, and the listening passage discusses some critics about them which cast doubt on the conclusion given in the reading passage.
          In the reading passage, the author discusses Margaret Mead's studies of three societies in New Guinea about gender behavior. In the first society, it was observed that the behavior was similar and had feminine characteristics. In the second society, the beahvior was also similar but this time, it had masculine characteristics. The third society, the behavior was not similar, men had feminine characteristics and woman had masculine characteristics. Finally, Mead concluded that the culture is the aspect that defines the behavior.
          The listening passage casts doubt on the conclusion in the reading passage by criticizing the results of the research in the three societies mentioned before. While it is true that these societies generally prove her hypothesis, it is also true that the results are too neat because a research is not usually this tidy, and the results suggest Mead found what she was looking for rather than what was really there.

Polysemic words

          In this set of materials, the reading passage provides some examples of polysemic words, and the listening passage adds to this by providing more examples of a special group of polysemic words.
          The reading passage describes the concept of Polysemy, that is a word which has more than one meaning. Moreover, two examples of polysemic words are provided. First the word "Sound", which acts like a noun, adjective, verb, verb phrase and adverb. Then, the word "Set", that has a lot of noun meanings and verb meanings.
          The listening passage provides examples of a particular group of polysemic words. In this group, the words have only different meanings, but also opposite meanings. Example of this are the words "Bolt" and "Fast", which can mean "can not move" or "move quickly". Another example is the word "Sanction" that means "permit" or "not permit".

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Difficult aspects of learning a new language

          Some people think that learning a new language does not have many difficult aspects and it depends just on the age of the person who is learning. It is scientifically demonstrated that young people are able to learn new languages in an easy way. However, there are still some difficult aspects when learning a new language despite the age and for me, those aspects are pronunciation, grammar and practicing.
          In the first place, pronunciation is very important because most of the times, the new language is very different than the native one. Some languages have their own rules in order to pronounce a word, according to the letters that compose it. For example, Spanish and English come from Latin, but 95% of the words are pronounced differently, even when they are written exactly in the same way and also they have the same meaning.
          Also, grammar is crucial in order to learn how to make a correct sentence to communicate with others. That is why the correct structure of the sentences we want to express will make us able to be understood. For instance in English, the subject and the verb have to be explicit in a complete sentence, but in Spanish, sometimes the subject is implicit when some verbs are conjugated in specific tenses.
          Finally, the possibility to practice the new language with other people is a strong aspect when considering which language to learn because the practice keeps the person involved with the language. For example, English is very easy if it is compared with Italian, because in one hand, English is spoken in almost every country in the world and it is more likely to find people to practice everywhere. On the other hand, Italian is just spoken in Italy.
          In conclusion learning a new language can be a very difficult thing to do if some aspects like pronunciation, grammar or practicing are not considered as important. With these aspects covered in an appropriate way, the chances of success are very high.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

An historical event in my country that had a major effect

          There are a lot of important historical events that happened in Bolivia and had a major effect on the country since the Independence from the Colony in 1825. For me, one of the most important events is the Pacific War that we lost against Chile.
          The first reason is that we lost a big peace of land which contained Guano and Salitre, which are natural resources with a high price in the market of that time. The selling of those resources would have been very important for the economy. In fact, Chile invaded Bolivia and the war started because of this.
          Second, by losing the War, Bolivia gave the impression to all the other countries that it was weak and also vulnerable in the frontiers. Moreover, several countries started to invade us and generated other wars. For instance, Brazil and Paraguay took away other regions from us